Archive for the ‘2000_Learning’ Category

List of Grassroot Media Organisations Used by Prince Harry and Meghan Markle Mountbatten-Windsor Sussexroyal.com

January 12, 2020

Meghan & Harry are developing a new communication channel. They have defined the framework of their media channels to be used in the future.

RoyalRotaSystemGrassrootJournalism

Grassroot Media Organisations:

How they are defining grassroot media is still open. It is a term that had traction a few years ago but since then has not been used widely. Grassroot media could be citizen journalism which is also know as  public journalism, participatory journalism, democratic journalism, guerrilla journalism, or street journalism.

People Voice Media

The media organisations have yet to be defined. One potential candidate could be People Voice Media, United Kingdom.

Instagram accounts

On their instagram @sussexroyal account they are following one account since the beginning of January 2020: Good News Movement @goodnews_movement founded by @michellemfigueroa(Boston).
They plan to follow a new account each month. Reference (Daily Mail)

 

Young up-and-coming journalists:

It will show in the coming months who will qualify for this category. So far I have seen Caroline Halleman covering this topic quite extensively for the Town & Country Magazine (USA) which is owned by Hearst.

Specialist media:

 

Credible meida outlets:

 

Own offical channels:

Their own official channel sussexroyal.com was created by Article an agency in Canada (Founder: Ryan Fox).

Instagram is their official channel which is owned by Facebook (Mark Zuckerberg).

Megxit – Result of Negotiations win-lose (Meghan/Harry) or lose-lose (Meghan/Harry)?

According to the official speech of Prince Harry :

The Royal Family

The Royal Family is using twitter: @RoyalFamily

Official Statements by the Sovereign (The Queen) are published here:
https://www.royal.uk/statement-her-majesty-queen

Lawyers supporting sussexroyal.com:

libel lawyers Schillings

“proceedings in the high court over the misuse of private information, infringement of copyright and breach of General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)” against Mail on Sunday reporting. See: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/oct/01/meghan-sues-mail-on-sunday-for-publishing-letter-to-her-father

 

Comet and Planet Formation – the Convection Cell Condensation Ring Model

April 21, 2018

ConvectionCellRingCondensationFormation

Probably all of us know the accretion model in which all bodies in our universe from our stars, planets to comets and asteroids (small bodies)  are formed due to the force of gravity .  In 1589 Galileo conducted his first experiments with gravity in the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Later in the 1660s Newton developed the law of motions  which includes the law of gravity at the unviersity of Camebridge.

In 1755, German philosopher Immanuel Kant proposed the nebular hypothesis, in which a great cloud of material, the solar nebula, preceded the Sun and planets. ” Link. Gravity then started the formation process of our solar system, first the sun and then the planets. And it is also gravity that holds the planets to not vanish into the vacuum of the space around the solar system. So far so good. This model has made some very good predictions and led to the discovery of further planets in our solar system such as Uranus in 1781. But the first sign of failures came with Einstein. When did Isaac Newton Finally Fail?  

And lately the accretion model is not making the right predictions. Rather surprises are the new normal.
The latest example are:
a) Star and planates formation happens simultanously: “A Case of Simultaneous Star and Planet Formation” Authors: Felipe O. AlvesL. Ilsedore CleevesJosep M. GirartZhaohuan ZhuGabriel A. P. FrancoAlice Zurlo, and Paola Caselli – Published 2020 November 19 • © 2020. The American Astronomical Society.
b) “Black hole does not stop star birth instantaneously which goes against the current scientific prediction” – Allison Kirkpatrick, assistant professor at the University of Kansas in Lawrence Kansas and co-author on the study    in Galaxy Survives Black Hole’s Feast – For Now (Nasa.gov) 

When scientiest started to research atoms and particles it was the first time gravity (accretion) failed completley. As well as in other structure forming processes different factors are key and accretion is not used to explain the structure formation. A good example is the hail forming process where thermo dynamics (temperature differences) is the main driver. And even for the height and timing of our tides it is not so much the gravitational but rather the regional forces . Link
Lately the same applies to why our earth has kept her oceans while Mars lost all of his. In this case it is the planetary magnetism and not the gravity that is decisive.

Reference: Planetary Magnetism as a Parameter in Exoplanet Habitability, Planetary Magnetism as a Parameter in Exoplanet Habitability Link

The discovery of exo planets created further challenges for the accretion model. Link.

And up until 2013 the common view was that our solar system is surrounded by a vacuum space without any border.  This view has changed with the IBEX mission (Interstellar Boundary Explorer Spacecraft).  Retention Theory: Link and Link.

Folie2

Viking 2 has crossed this boundary last year (2019). Reference: “Voyager 2 Illuminates Boundary of Interstellar Space” Link
“The plasma inside the heliosphere is hot and sparse, while the plasma in interstellar space is colder and denser. ” Ed Stone, project scientist for Voyager and a professor of physics at Caltech.
Reference: News Media Contact, Calla Cofield, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.,
calla.e.cofield@jpl.nasa.gov

“NASA’s Voyager 2 Prober Enters Interstellar Space” Link
American Geophysical Union (AGU) in Washington
Plasma Science Experiment (PLS)
John Richardson, principal investigator for the PLS instrument and a principal research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge
Nicola Fox, director of the Heliophysics Division at NASA Headquarters
Suzanne Dodd, Voyager project manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California

“The Voyager Interstellar Mission is a part of NASA’s Heliophysics System Observatory, sponsored by the Heliophysics Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. JPL built and operates the twin Voyager spacecraft. NASA’s DSN, managed by JPL, is an international network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. The network also supports selected Earth-orbiting missions. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia’s national science agency, operates both the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex, part of the DSN, and the Parkes Observatory, which NASA has been using to downlink data from Voyager 2 since Nov. 8.”

And lately rotating Gas Rings have been discovered around the star HD 163296. Link
Meridional flows in the disk around a young star
2019: Authors Richard Teague, Jaehan BaeEdwin A. Bergin

In the convection cell condensation model the planets and small bodies form within these gas rings while in the accretion model the planets form in the gaps between these rings.

PlanetFormationGasConvectionRing

Convection Cells for example exist in the atmosphere of our planet, in our sun or in liquids.

ConvectionCell

For liquids to form convection cells a one sided heat source is required. Link1. Link2. Natural Convection in plane horizontal layers are called Bénard Cells. Link. These cells are observable for example on our sun’s surface. 

The sun itself is a one sided heat source in a three dimensional spheric convection zone (probably a pancake structure). The IBEX ribbon acts as the boundary layer for this convection zone. Below a very simplistic graphical sketch.

SolarSystemConvectionZone

Our sun was much hotter in the past. As a young protostar the sun had a temperature of likely 1 Million Kelvin. Plasma Jets would heat up the gas/dust disk around the proto sun.

ProtosunPlasmaJets

With a heat source the proto sun with plasma jets and a boundary layer (Ibex Ribbon) convection cell rings formed in the gas/dust disk. The tilt and rotation of our planets today are an indication.

AxialTiltsPlanets

The accretion model instead needs large impact scenarios to explain the different rotation and tilts of the planet Venus and Uranus and a collision of the Earth and Theia to form the moon.

Based on the convection cell condensation theory there could be a link between the characterics of the star and the type of exoplanets formed (thermo dynamics). Exoplanets Database:
https://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu/

Below an example of a protoplanetary disk with boundary layers:

Boundary Layers Cygnus protoplanetary nebula
Protoplanetary nebula in Cygnus shared by Jason Major @JPMajor on twitter

Protoplanetary Egg nebula in Cygnus 3000 light-years away shared by Jason Major @JPMajor on twitter
“An opaque cloud of dust and gas hides a central star that’s expelling its outer layers; beams of its light escape the cloud through holes, illuminating the layers.”

Ohter examples of Planetary Disks:

VorticesPlanetaryDisk

 

HLCentauriPlanetaryDisk

 

ConvectionCellRingCondensationModel

But for the accretion model it is even more complex to explain the formation of all the small bodies in our solar system and how they were transported to their current locations.

The dust composites formed at different temperatures and different times yet the nucleus formed in the outer region of our solar system. One of the most complex ones is 81P/Wild 2. Link  The composition of the dust is known due to several space mission such as Stardust, Deep Impact, Rosetta and lately a Japanese Mission.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists ( Greg Brennecka, lead author) studied isotopes of the element molybdenum found on meteorites. They came to the conclusion that the solar system must have formed in less than 200 000 years. Link. “The oldest dated solids in the solar system are calcium-aluminum–rich inclusions (CAIs), and these samples provide a direct record of solar system formation. These micrometer- to centimeter-sized inclusions in meteorites formed in a high-temperature environment (more than 1,300 Kelvin), probably near the young sun. They were then transported outward to the region where carbonaceous chondrite meteorites (and their parent bodies) formed, where they are found today. The majority of CAIs formed 4.567 billion years ago, over a period of about 40,000 to 200,000 years.

Comet_Asteroid_Formation

Small body database:
https://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi

Most asteroids or comets due to the high pressures > 5000 PA when parts of their material formed and as well through the relativ fast cooling in space or through impacts have formed quasicrystal structures. Their porous structures allow water to be embedded within and freeze. The mission to the asteroids Ryugu and Bennu will likely bring back some more quasicrystal. Link.  See Paul Ehrenfeldt, Luca Bindi’s work on quasicrystals.
The composition of asteroids and comets have formed in different locations of the planetary disk. It is through the jets that brings together the materials and finally their final structure will form at the farest transport point of the jet or when the jets finally stop.

1979: V. V. Kryachko found the first natural quasicrystal
1982-84: Paul Steinhardt theorized about new form of matter and developed togehter with Dov Levine the Theory for quasicrystals based on the Penrose Tiles (1974)
1982: Dan Schechtman discovered the first quasicrystal in the laboratory (Nobel Prize)
1985: Razin et. al describe the quasicrystal found by V.V. Kryachko as new crystal (unknown of the fact that it was a quasicrystal)
2008: Luca Bindi identified the first natural quasicrystal 
2009: Confirmed by Paul Steinhardt and ??
Link

While the sun’s plasma jets have long ago seized, the solar wind still impacts the shape and behaviours of the objects in our solar system.

AsteroidSpinSolarWind

Link 

Even our earth rotation is variable and sometime can even speed up. 2020 saw the shortest days since measuring the daily velocity (duration of day) of the earth.  Link

High-temperature condensation of iron-rich olivine
in the solar nebula
1989: Herbert Palme and Bruce Fegley Jr.

Page 1: “Olivine is the most abundant mineral in many chondritic meteorites”.

“FeSiO 3 and Fe2SiO 4 were stable at T < 600 K in the solar nebula”.

Page 2: “formation of the FeO-bearing
olivines in the rims and veins occurred at comparatively
high temperatures. However, as noted
earlier in section 1, this is not possible in a solarcomposition
gas because formation of FeO-bearing
olivines with the composition Fa20 requires temperatures
of -425 K [9] while more-fayalitic
olivines, like those found in Allende, require even
lower temperatures.
As originally shown by Palme and Fegley [18],
a gas phase that is significantly more oxidizing
than a solar composition gas is needed for the
formation of FeO-bearing olivine at high temperatures
in the solar nebula. In the present paper we
calculate the conditions required for condensation
of FeO-bearing olivine and show that an oxygen
fugacity several orders of magnitude greater than
that of a solar-composition gas is needed for condensation
of the observed mineral assemblages.

See figure 2: Condensation temperature

“Condensation temperatures of corundum, forsterite and
various Fe-bearing phases (Fe-metal, wiistite, magnetite) as
function of the oxygen fugacity of the nebula (expressed as
HEO/H 2 ratio). The field for possible forsterite-fayalite solid
solutions is indicated. The condensation curves for wiistite and
magnetite are shown for comparison. They were calculated
assuming no removal of Fe from the gas by condensation of
metal. In the classical condensation model Fe would condense
as metal and equilibrate at low temperatures with silicates to
produce FeO-rich olivine and pyroxene. At more oxidizing
conditions a solid solution of forsterite and fayalite would
condense before Fe-metal. The amount of fayalite would increase
wi.th increasing H20/H 2 ratios of the gas.”

“For example, the condensation
temperatures of forsterite and metallic
iron at 10 -6 atm in solar-composition gas are
1234 K and 1205 K, respectively.
Oxygen fugacities higher than those”

Page 5: “In a gas of solar composition, enstatite condensation
begins a few tens of degrees below the
condensation temperature of forsterite. For example,
at a pressure of 10 -3 atm and a solar HzO/H 2
ratio, forsterite would condense at 1429 K. If
condensation of forsterite is neglected, enstatite
would condense at 1426 K.”

Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud:

nasa-pathsofspaceprobesthroughthekuiperbelt-20190105

solar system and Oort Cloud with distances (Sun .... ?-Centauri

What is the similarity between a foundling of a glacier and the Kuiper Belt and the  Oort Cloud?

Lately so called “accretion” bursts during formation of young stars have been observed. These blasts can last for about two weeks to a few months. The latest observation was made in January 2019 by astronomers at Ibaraki University in Japan at the protostar, G358-MM1. The previously last two observed bursts were different and therefore suggest that they depend on the  evolutionary stage of the young star.

Reference:

Disk-mediated accretion burst in a high-mass young stellar object
A. Caratti o Garatti (1), B. Stecklum (2), R. Garcia Lopez (1), J. Eislöffel (2), T.P. Ray (1), A. Sanna (3), R. Cesaroni (4), C.M. Walmsley (1 and 4), R.D. Oudmaijer (5), W.J. de Wit (6), L. Moscadelli (4), J. Greiner (7), A. Krabbe (8), C. Fischer (8), R. Klein (9), J.M. Ibañez (10) ((1) Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, (2) Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, (3) Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, (4) INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, (5) University of Leeds, (6) ESO European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, (7) Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, (8) Deutsches SOFIA Institut, (9) NASA Ames Research Center, (10) Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía)

Astronomers Have Caught a Rare And Massive ‘Accretion Burst’ in Our Galaxy
Author: JAMES OKWE CHIBUEZE, Associate Professor, North-West University.

cloughmore_stone2c_rostrevor2c_july_2010_280129
Foundling of Cloughmore

Similar to foundlings of retreated glaciers, the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt are the witness of a very active sun during formation of our solar system. Oort Cloud comets condensed when the sun was most active and these left overs were pushed to the furthest distant to the sun. Kuiper Belt comets condensed when the young sun had its second highest activity peak. Thus Oort Cloud comets are of similar composition and the same applies to the Kuiper Belt objects.

Book:
Hans Rickman: Origin and Evolution of Comets:Ten Years after the Nice Model and One Year after Rosetta (Advances in Planetary Science Book 2)

“A component of particular interest hosts the so-called calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions or CAIs (Sec. 2.6.2). These have a common age (4 567 Myr) that exceeds all other ages of solar system materials, so their formation is taken as the marker of the origin of the solar system. The whole-rock ages of the chondrites containing the CAIs are typically”

“Most of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed in the infant solar system can be explained either as products of stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galactic disk at relatively large distances, which is continuously ongoing, or as results of the corpuscular irradiation of the solar nebula by the solar wind, which was very strong when the Sun was formed.”

“An unexpected result is a strong heterogeneity of the olivine and pyroxene compositions between individual grains,”while Hartley 2 may rather be referred to the Scattered Disk (see Sec. 1.4), the difference in D/H ratio might reflect a difference in formation conditions at different distances from the Sun — a fundamental issue when discussing comet origins.”  which indicates very different formation conditions.”

“CAI stands for Calcium–Aluminum-rich Inclusions. These occur in many chondritic meteorites and consist of minerals with extremely high condensation temperatures, often involving calcium and aluminum.”

“The most prominent of these are C2, C3 and CN, each shining in its particular wavelength bands. The so-called Swan bands of C2 are often dominant.”

“Oversimplification of the dynamical model used is extremely risky, as was seen during the ESA/Giotto flyby of comet 1P/Halley in 1986, when the spacecraft was hit by a grain far too large (its mass was ∼1 g) to be compatible with the advance predictions. “

“The DWR (dust/water ratio) would be ≃6, but Rosetta/ROSINA data for CO and CO2 had shown these molecules to contribute ∼50% in mass relative to H2O (Hässig et al. 2015).” Comets are now called dirt/dust balls with ice.

Book:
Asteroids: Astronomical and Geological Bodies (Cambridge Planetary Science Book 17) (English Edition)” von Thomas H. Burbine

“These spectral observations of asteroids showed that these bodies have a wide variety of surface mineralogies and experienced a wide range of heating.”

“Meteorites were found to range from those that melted (e.g., irons, stony-irons, achondrites) to those that experienced minimal heating (e.g., ordinary chondrites, carbonaceous chondrites, enstatite chondrites).”

Modeling a Carrington-scale Stellar Superflare and Coronal Mass Ejection from κ
1Cet

Book (Kindle):
“Comets And Their Origin: The Tools To Decipher A Comet (English Edition)” von Uwe Meierhenrich

“One lesson that needs to be kept in mind from previous missions to comets is that every comet has yielded surprises that upset one or another of our conceptual understandings of comets. Rosetta should be no exception to this pattern. We cannot predict whether the surprises will be in chemical composition, in nuclear structure, in nuclear topography and surface processes, or in coma flow properties.”

“The 95P/Chiron comet, which has an estimated diameter of 200 km, seems to be exceptional in terms of its age and orbit”

“one example is the formation of surface craters through internal explosions that are similar to steam-explosion craters on Earth called maars [15]. Crystallization of amorphous ice at depths of a few tens of meters [16] might also release heat that triggers cometary outbursts”

“closer examination reveals that the cometary tail is composed of two morphologically different tails (see Figure 1.3), a thin long tail (type I tail), which is the plasma tail, and a diffuse curved tail (type II tail), which is the dust tail. The two tails point in two different directions, and it is now known that both tails do not point exactly in the antisolar direction.”

“Forces other than gravity determine the behavior of these particles; in particular, solar radiation pressure is known to generate a significant interaction with the dust particles. The solar radiation pressure force originates from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation (the sunlight) with matter and describes the momentum transfer from the radiation field, or photon stream, to the scattering and absorbing dust [19].”

“The temperature at which comets formed is assumed to be greater than 25 K because highly volatile species such as helium and the other noble gases, along with molecular nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide, exhibit very low abundances [8].”

“The IKS-determined temperature of the nuclear surface was measured to be 300–400 K [60], which is much greater than previously thought [53]. Other references suggest a surface temperature of ∼330 K [1]. This temperature was also much greater than the expected 215 K, which is necessary to sublimate water ice [18].”

“The apparently contradictory presence of ice in the cometary nucleus and the comet’s high surface temperature can be explained by the assumption that the nucleus is covered by a thin insulating layer [60] (or mantle) of a black, porous, refractory substance with a thickness of ∼1 cm.”

“some comets are thought to have heated their interior through radioactive decay processes, which are primarily due to the short-lived radioisotope 26Al.

“The detection of the PAH anthracene was thus reported. In 2004, this technique was applied to the three peaks at 371, 376, and 382 nm to suggest a tentative detection of the PAH pyrene in the coma of comet Halley [68].”

“In 2006, microscopic and X-ray analyses of Stardust’s impacted dust particles (Figures 1.28 and 1.29) demonstrated, somewhat surprisingly, that the impacted particles were not exclusively interstellar grains of submicron size. Abundant high-temperature minerals, such as forsterite (Mg2SiO4), which has a condensation temperature of 1400 K, enstatite (MgSiO3), and calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), were identified in the impacted cometary particles; such materials must have formed in the hot and innermost regions of the solar nebula, well inside the orbit of Mercury [132]”

“In summary, the data obtained by DS1 provided unique information about the surface of comet Borrelly’s nucleus, which is hot, dry, and extremely dark.”

“A cometary nucleus can be characterized as an asymmetric, kilometer-sized solid object with an irregular tar-type crust that contains dirty ices in a porous matrix of refractory material and that rotates toward the Sun.”

“contradicts the Whipple theory of how comets are made: that they consist of dust particles held together by ice [50]”

“Its spectacular and unexpected data revealed that cometary particles contain not only hydrogen (with its isotopes, deuterium and tritium) and oxygen but also carbon and nitrogen atoms. One of the significant surprises of the Halley encounters was the detection of large amounts of carbonaceous dust that was rich in H, C, O, and N, the so-called CHON particles [1].”

“Giotto’s measurement of the geometric albedo p of the cometary surface was a tremendous scientific surprise. Estimations for p varied; some values were as high as p = 0.6 [18].12 Giotto observed that the surface of 1P/Halley’s nucleus is dark and exhibits a very low geometric albedo of p = 0.04, thereby indicating that the comet’s nucleus at full phase has about one-third the reflectivity of the moon [10, 98]. The albedo value is one of the lowest of all known objects in the Solar System [98]: only some C-type asteroids and Saturn’s moon Iapetus exhibit smaller values as low as p = 0.01 [102]. Keller et al. [98] concluded that most of the surface of the nucleus of comet 1P/Halley must be covered by a nonvolatile insulating crust of dark material that traps light in tiny cavities between fluffy dust particles because of its high porosity. The temperature of the crust must become much hotter than the equilibrium temperature for the sublimation of water ice [98]. Keller et al. [10] suggests that the crust or mantle is more than several centimeters thick.”

“The volume of 1P/Halley’s nucleus was determined to be 420 km3, and its density was determined to have the quite low value of 0.55 ± 0.25 g cm−3, perhaps only 0.2 g cm−3 [10]. Comets are thus the lowest density bodies in the Solar System.”

“Britt believes that the spherical shape of the nucleus of comet Wild 2 and its impact-cratered surface hint at its direct formation from the dust and gas of the presolar disk. Wild 2 lacks major structural discontinuities and heterogeneities, suggesting that it did not form from the juxtaposition of large blocks of physically dissimilar materials acquired either by the accretion of various planetesimals or by extensive collisional processing [15].”

“The surprising and most prominent signal in the positive-ion spectra at m/z = 90 was more difficult to understand. Kissel et al. proposed that the C6NH+ ion originated from methylpyridine-like alicyclic structures.”

“The CIDA mass spectra of Wild 2 dust grains are similar to the spectra obtained from comet 1P/Halley, thereby indicating that the two comets have similar chemistry even though they have different ages [113].”

“Sophisticated laboratory analyses of returned dust particle samples from Wild 2 revealed that many of the silicate grains are high-temperature minerals that formed in the inner regions of the solar nebula; this result considerably modified our understanding of the formation of comets [132].”

“The Deep Impact data indicated that the nucleus of 9P/Tempel provided signs of past geological activity; it is much more than a primordial “dirty snowball” [146]”

“FTIR studies confirmed the presence of crystalline silicates in the Wild 2 samples, thereby indicating that this comet is a mixture of presolar and Solar System materials [140]”

“quantified the hydrogen and deuterium isotopes in five dust particles captured by Stardust. The D/H values obtained were reported to range from typical terrestrial values up to moderate D/H enhancements of approximately three times the D/H value of mean ocean water. The D enrichments were associated with carbon, and it is important to note that these enrichments might have been modified during impact and cannot be ascribed to Wild 2 water”

“particles captured by Wild 2 performed by Zolensky et al. revealed the presence of primarily silicates [129, 130], such as olivine [(Mg,Fe)2SiO4], and low-Ca pyroxene [(Mg,Fe)SiO3] and also ubiquitous Fe-Ni sulfides, including troilite (FeS) [130] and Fe-Ni metal; these compounds require a wide range of formation conditions [137]. In agreement with the data provided by Brownlee et al. [132], these data strongly support the formation of mineral cometary constituents at very different locations in the protoplanetary disk [137]”

“Michael F. A’Hearn from the University of Maryland concluded from the Stardust data that even more extensive and earlier mixing of the material took place in the disk in which the planets of the Solar System formed [36]”

“inner Solar System materials – which account for ∼10% of the comet’s mass – must have been transported beyond the orbit of Neptune, either by ballistic transport above the nebular midplane or by turbulent transport in the midplane [132]”

“Interestingly, these authors found that the abundance ratio of ethane relative to water increased after impact by a factor of 1.8, whereas the abundance ratios for methanol and hydrogen cyanide remained unchanged. The data hint at the possibility that the nucleus of 9P/Tempel is inhomogeneous in its composition [154].”

“Fe-rich fayalite were found to be the dominant olivine species in a 3.9 abundance-ratio-by-mole fraction, suggesting that the temperature for the incorporation of olivine into the comet was between 1100 and 1400 K [153].”

“The presence of high-temperature crystalline silicates (olivines) was surprising and requires thermal heating of material near the young Sun, where temperatures >1000 K were reached only inside the present orbit of Mercury [153].”

“Furthermore, Zolensky and coworkers point to the fact that the mineralogy reported by Lisse et al. for comet 9P/Tempel is in clear contrast with the lack of aqueous alteration products in Wild 2 that was demonstrated by the Stardust mission [137]. This mineralogical difference could be due to differences in the geological histories of Jupiter-family comets [137].”

“Moreover, Sugita and colleagues [156] found that the high mass ratio of crystalline silicates compared with amorphous silicates demonstrates that comet 9P/Tempel, which is a Jupiter-family comet, contains many high-temperature components of the solar nebula, similar to Oort-cloud comets.”

Küppers, Keller, and colleagues [155] concluded that the dust/ice mass ratio is most likely >1, thereby suggesting that comets are “icy dirtballs” rather than “dirty snowballs,” as is commonly believed [148]”

“In 2010, prior to EPOXI’s 103P/Hartley observations, Belton [176] proposed a remarkable possible scenario for the long-term evolution of cometary surfaces near the Sun. This scenario suggested an evolutionary sequence by which Jupiter-family comets might evolve from a Wild 2-type morphology to a Tempel 1-type morphology and, finally, to a Hartley 2-type morphology [175].”

“the authors argue that the first class of particles, olivine IDPs, originate from comets captured from eccentric orbits; the second class of particles, pyroxene IDPs, originate from comets with prograde orbits; and the third class of particles, hydrous layer and lattice silicate IDPs, originate from asteroids.”

“These claims about successive and stepwise comet formation are in agreement with observations of comet splitting, such as comet West, which split into four fragments in March 1976, thereby indicating that the building blocks, the cometesimals, may not be tightly bound together [9].”

“addition, data from the Deep Impact mission regarding the dust composition of comet Tempel 1 (see Section 1.8) revealed a great heterogeneity, which is consistent with the idea that the nucleus is made of cometesimals (smaller chunks) with differing compositions [37].”

“A’Hearn [37] proposed extensive radial mixing of cometesimals in the outer parts of the early Solar System rather than formation of cometary nuclei from cometesimals that condensed at a uniform distance from the proto-Sun, thereby making it difficult to determine a precise location for the formation of comets.”

“In ortho-water, the nuclei of the two hydrogen atoms have the same spin, whereas in para-water, the two hydrogen atoms have different spins”

“The temperature Tspin is assumed to depend on the temperature during formation of the water molecule.”

“the cometary Tspin values vary from 20 to 60 K and cluster at ∼30 K [91].”

“Observations by Rodgers et al. [122] of the HNC and HCN abundances in the coma of comet C/2002 C1 (Ikeya–Zhang) as a function of its heliocentric distance demonstrated that the recorded amounts of HNC cannot be synthesized in the cometary coma by chemical reactions, thus suggesting degradation of complex organic material as the source of HNC in cometary comae instead.”

“By observing comet Ikeya (1963a), Stawikowski and Greenstein [134] recorded intensities of the emission lines of the Swan bands 12C2 and 12C13C to calculate the 12C/13C ratio; they found a value of 70 ± 15. On the Earth, this ratio is ∼90. Stawikowski and Greenstein thus concluded that cometary material could have come from the same region of the solar nebula as did the Earth or from interstellar matter.”

“13CN rotational lines in the R-branch, which is located in the visible (violet) spectral range. The authors determined a 12C/13C ratio of 65 ± 9. Later, however, the validity of these data was called into question [138], and values of 95 ± 12 were reported for the rotational lines in the R-branch [139]”

“The 12C/13C ratio was found to be 111 ± 12 for HCN, which is consistent with the Solar System values [140]. The authors point to the fact that the interstellar medium exhibits, according to investigations by Wilson and Rood [141], a 12C/13C isotope ratio of 77 ± 7; thus, an interstellar origin for comet Hale-Bopp was excluded by Jewitt et al. [140].”

“Hawaiian JCMT study of comet Hale-Bopp, Jewitt et al. [140] moreover distinguished the nitrogen isotopes 14N and 15N in hydrogen cyanide, HCN. For the determination of the ratio, the area of a different hyperfine component line for HC15N at 344.2003 GHz was quantified; this measurement yielded an HC14N/HC15N ratio of 323 ± 46. According to the authors, this value suggests a Solar System origin, the ratio of which is given in the literature as 270 [144] or 272 for atmospheric nitrogen [133]; however, the identified value was also consistent with the interstellar medium, which has 14N/15N ≈ 460 ± 100 [145].”

“For all comets, regardless of their origin or heliocentric distance, a remarkably constant 14N/15N value of 147.8 ± 5.7 was recorded. The authors indicated that this finding supports fractionation in the early Solar System and a common origin for comets.”

“The low 14N/15N ratios in HCN and the CN and NH2 radicals, however, suggest fractionation in the early Solar System and a common origin for the comets.”

“According to the Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW), terrestrial water exhibits a strict and stable deuterium-to-hydrogen (D/H) ratio of 1.558·10−4, with an error of 0.001·10−4. The VSMOW 18O/16O ratio is 2.01·10−3.”

“In six Oort cloud comets, including C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) [4], the D/H ratio has been determined to have the relatively high value of (2.96 ± 0.25)·10−4. This value is twice the value of terrestrial water.”

“Carbonaceous chondrites with asteroid parent bodies have been observed to have the low D/H ratio of (1.4 ± 0.1)·10−4.”

“comet 103P/Hartley 2 “…”Jupiter-family comet that is believed to originate from the Kuiper belt.” … “Difficulties in explaining the low D/H ratio in the water vapor of comet 103P/Hartley remain. One possible explanation includes large-scale mixing of material between the inner and outer Solar System [7], which is expressed by radial mixing of comets and asteroids that originated in different regions [8].”

“Mumma and Charnley note that isotopic exchange with H2 in the turbulent nebula would predict low D/H ratios for comets formed close to the orbit of Jupiter and higher D/H ratios for comets formed outside the turbulent solar nebula beyond 17 AU.”

“Surprisingly, proteins in all living organisms of all domains of life on Earth exclusively use l-amino acids (!) for their molecular architecture [1]”

“Why and how was the balance tipped to the left? Very recently, this phenomenon was classified in the journal Nature as one of the five most difficult tasks to decipher that remain unsolved in the natural sciences [3]”

“Since 1986 and the Giotto encounter with comet 1P/Halley [38, 58, 59], and in particular because of the Deep Impact mission to comet 9P/Tempel 1 [27], it became known that cometary nuclei were neither symmetric nor homogeneous in their composition”

“Observations performed by the Keck-2 telescope in the near-infrared indicated that the emission profiles of organic molecules such as ethane, methanol, and HCN vary, which suggests that the cometary nucleus is inhomogeneous in its chemical composition [16]”

“Küppers, Keller, and colleagues [19] concluded that the dust/water mass ratio of 9P/Tempel was much greater than 1, which suggests that comets are “icy dirtballs” [18] rather than “dirty snowballs”, as suggested by Whipple in 1950 [20, 21]”

“Asteroids can generally be considered remnants of a planet or planets that never formed; they are not the debris from an exploded planet [23].”

The Second Kind of Impossible: The Extraordinary Quest for a New Form of Matter   Paul J. Steinhardt

“The relative percentages on Earth are determined by the history of the planet and the exposure of its minerals to cosmic rays and radioactivity. Other planets, like Mars, have had different evolutionary histories and their minerals have been exposed to different levels of cosmic rays and radioactivity. So minerals from Mars contain percentages of the three oxygen isotopes that are different from those found on Earth. The same applies for minerals formed on other planets and on different types of asteroids.”

“Ed had spent his career studying both natural and man-made materials. Working on JPL’s Mars Exploration Rover mission, he had discovered remarkable similarities between a rock on the Martian surface and a rare rock sample found on Earth.”

“logical explanation was that the metal solidified ultra-rapidly, before it could react with the oxygen bonded to the silicate. Ultra-rapid cooling would also explain the oddly contorted shapes. Yet rapid cooling at such a high rate would not normally occur as part of any natural process on the surface of the Earth or in an ordinary laboratory.”

“We knew from standard tables used by engineers and geoscientists that the cooling silicates would have been the first to crystallize, at about 1500° C. The copper-aluminum alloys would have crystallized later, at about 1000°” 

“I would need to find conditions where aluminum could easily separate from oxygen. It would require ultra-high pressures, which can be found three thousand kilometers below the surface of the Earth near the core-mantle boundary.”

“And when it comes to science, the simplest explanation is usually the best.”

“David Nelson on rapidly cooled liquids.”

“The same applies to rapidly cooled solids, which scientists call glassy or amorphous.”

“The diffraction pattern of a quasicrystal would be composed of absolutely perfect pinpoints arranged in a snowflake pattern.” 

Modeling a Carrington-scale Stellar Superflare and Coronal Mass Ejection from κ
1Cet

Benjamin J. Lynch, 1 Vladimir S. Airapetian, 2, 3 C. Richard DeVore, 2 Maria D. Kazachenko,4 Teresa Luftinger, ¨5 Oleg Kochukhov, 6 Lisa Rosen, ´6 and William P. Abbett1

Click to access 1906.03189.pdf

Page 1: “The cumulative effects of both steady-state and extreme space
weather from active stars, including intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, large fluxes of highly energetic particles, and frequent exoplanet interactions with stellar coronal mass ejections (CMEs), will have a significant impact on the exoplanets’ atmospheric evolution, and ultimately on their habitability “(Lammer
et al. 2007, 2009; Drake et al. 2013; Osten & Wolk 2015;
Kay et al. 2016; Airapetian et al. 2019b).

Page 2: “younger stars exhibit greater maximum flare energies and higher flare
frequencies” (Maehara et al. 2012; Notsu et al. 2013, 2019; Shibayama et al. 2013).

Oumuamua_SolarSystemObject

The Interstellar Object ‘Oumuamua as a Fractal Dust Aggregate

Eirik G. Flekkøy1Jane Luu2,3, and Renaud Toussaint1,4

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ab4f78 or https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.07135

“Oumuamua exhibited a nongravitational acceleration that appeared inconsistent with cometary outgassing, leaving radiation pressure as the most likely force”

“a fractal body with the ultra-low density of 10−2 kg m−3.”

Probably a quasicrystal structure due the fast cooling in space.

Discovery of fossil asteroidal ice in primitive meteorite Acfer 094

  1. Megumi Matsumoto1,*,,
  2. Akira Tsuchiyama2,3,
  3. Aiko Nakato1,,
  4. Junya Matsuno1,
  5. Akira Miyake1,
  6. Akimasa Kataoka4,
  7. Motoo Ito5,
  8. Naotaka Tomioka5,
  9. Yu Kodama6,
  10. Kentaro Uesugi7,
  11. Akihisa Takeuchi7,
  12. Tsukasa Nakano8 and
  13. Epifanio Vaccaro9
  1. 1Division of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

  2. 2Research Organization of Science and Technology, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan.

  3. 3Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, GD 510640, China.

  4. 4National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan.

  5. 5Kochi Institute for Core Sample Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Kochi 783-0093, Japan.

  6. 6Marine Works Japan Ltd., Kanagawa 237-0063, Japan.

  7. 7Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Hyogo 679-5198, Japan.

  8. 8Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki 305-8567, Japan.

  9. 9Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, UK.
  1. *Corresponding author. Email: m_matsumto@tohoku.ac.jp
  •  Present address (primarily responsible for media coverage): Department of Earth and Planetary Materials Science, Tohoku University, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan.

  •  Present address: Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Kanagawa 252-5210, Japan.

“UPLs ( ultraporous lithology) with abundant pores are fragile. UPLs are porous aggregates of amorphous and crystalline silicates, Fe─Ni sulfides, and organics. Nevertheless, UPLs show no evidence for pore compaction (Fig. 3A), which would be expected to have occurred during accretion.”

Speed Formation of the Earth

Earth_SpeedFormation

Extraterrestrial ribose and other sugars in primitive meteorites

Yoshihiro FurukawaYoshito ChikaraishiNaohiko OhkouchiNanako O. OgawaDaniel P. Glavin,Jason P. DworkinChiaki Abe, and Tomoki Nakamura
 

“The mineralogy and IOM structure of NWA 801 indicate that aqueous alteration of this meteorite was very limited. Thus, sugars in NWA 801 could have been formed before accretion of the CR2 parent body or during an early parent body aqueous alteration stage”

Impact crater data analysis of Ryugu asteroid illuminates complicated geological history

Assistant Professor Naoyuki Hirata of the Department of Planetology at Kobe University’s Graduate School of Science

„Through analyzing the location patterns and characteristics of the craters, they determined that the asteroid’s eastern and western hemispheres were formed at different periods of time.“

„. It is thought that this ridge formed in the distant past during a period when it only took Ryugu 3 hours to rotate. As the eastern hemisphere and western hemisphere were formed at different periods of the asteroid’s history- this suggests that there have been at least two instances where Ryugu’s rotational speed has increased.” – See also Nowadays: Sunlight still makes asteroids spin in strange ways at http://www.spacedaily.com/news/asteroid-03q.html

49 Ceti atomic carbon gas 10 times more than previously estimated Dr. Aya Higuchi

49Ceti_Aya_Higuchi

Hypothesis: Same Thermo Dynamic Principles apply to all observed Structure Formation in the Universe

Jets of Black Holes, Flares of Stars, the Solar Wind are caused by the same general principles.

The first jets of black holes were observed in 2018: Link and first described in 2001: Link
The pancake structure seems to be the norm in the universe Link1 and Link2. The rotation of structure is also a common charecterictics.

It seems that the distribution of the observable energy follows along a preferred plane with opposing directions within a rotating pancake structure and looks almost like a “flying saucer”. This could be an indication of an underlying energy cycle within these observable systems. But what is the cause?

The “ideal” state in the universe should be a vacuum filled with virtual particles. Yet this state does not seem to be stable enough on a large scale. At a certain scale instability seems to “destroy” this ideal state. In this state virtual particles do not return into the vacuum “field” but instead form observable matter. It seems like a flash of real particle creation is speeding suddenly through this vacuum field and hot gases form along the flash. If such events are happening what would we detected from these high energy matter flash creations on earth first and what do we detect in the aftermath of it.

The new state is bluntly speaking a disturbed state of the ideal. An ongoing formation process is then setting in with the main aim to return back to the ideal state of the vacuum. Yet this transformation process is going through different transformational phases. One of them is the birth of a star.

The mystery of the cosmic rays
„One of the best ways of accelerating particles is a shock front [that occurs] when a medium with a large velocity runs into a slower one, producing a shock— a sudden change in the properties of the medium,” Tjus explains. “In the case of the universe, the changed properties are velocity and density, and even magnetic fields. Luckily for the cosmic rays, the field becomes highly turbulent in that process. And the combination of a shock front with turbulence is a great particle accelerator.” Link

Vertiual Particles Conversion
The underlying concpet is the conversion of virtual particles in vacuum to real particles and vice versa. While the observable matter might come from a conversion of virtual particles into more “stable” real particles under which conditions would the opposite coversion from real particles into virtual particles take place?
Neutron Star  RX J1856.5-3754 Scientists Catch “Virtual Particles” Hopping In and Out of Existence: Link

Virtual Particles: “Forces—such as the electromagnetic repulsion or attraction between two charges—can be thought of as due to the exchange of virtual photons between the charges”

To examine: Planet Convection Cell Rings have opposing magnetic fields – exchanges of virtual particles?

References Collection at:

How I passed the SAP SuccessFactors Employee Central Q3 2016 Delta Exam

September 13, 2016

I received the email from the SAP on 31st of August (see image below)

delta1

In the first part of the email sent by the email address certification.noreply@sap.com it is stated that I only need to pass the Delta Assessment Exam in SAP Learning Hub professional edition. More about the subscription fee for the professional edition of the SAP Learning hub can be found here.

First I did not notice this change and thought I will have to schedule another Delta Certification Exam again with a proctor on the SAP Certification Hub website. No, SAP SF announced during SuccessConnect 2016 that from September 2016 onwards the way to recertify will change. To pass the exam on the Learning Hub is now sufficient.

delta2

 

It was not easy for myself to quickly find the relevant delta course. I went to the Employee Central Learning Room.

delta4

I clicked on the menu item certification and then on Launch Q3 2016 Delta Training. This opened up the course which I could then assign to my active courses on the learning content page by clicking on the Assign to Me> button.

After assigning the course I then could open the course from my active courses list on the learning content page.

Delta3.png

The course with the code E-Learning THR81D_EN_Col63 (rev.1 16/08/2016) consists of a power point file and the learning hub exam (see below).

delta5

The Power Point file has in total 30 pages. Of these 14 pages really contain the content. These are mainly the slides the describe the new feature. Once you have downloaded the PowerPoint file you do need to go back again into the Learning Hub. You can study the material offline.

For these slides I created myself again learning questions before I went to take the Delta Assessment Exam (see picture above).

Hope these questions are helpful to you as well when studying the material.

1)      What is important about the advanced features of the enable configurable UI for Position Management V12 Org Chart?

2)      What is the workflow ‘Respect Workflow at Copy Positions on Position Org Char’ used for?

3)      What does the feature Matrix Relationship Synchronization enable and what is the default setting?

4)      What can you see via Manage Workflow Requests and what are the prerequisites?

5)      What is Pagination on Pending Workflow Requests?

6)      Can the customer restrict import of job information and job relationships based on authorization?

7)      What is the benefit of the Locale Picker for File Based Imports feature?

8)      How many clicks do you need to get to any information in the improved navigation & discovery information interface?

9)      What is highly flexible now in the new Admin interface?

10)   What are the performance improvements for the People Profile UI?

Because I am working on a big project I only spent 5 minutes per day studying the material. I guess one can do it easily in 30 minutes or less.

On Friday, September 9th I took the assessment test and passed after my second attempt. It seems you can take the assessment several times in order to reach the 100%.

Delta6.png

Well this is so much easier now. Hope you like it.

Happy Learning.

And there is more information about the Delta Exam from Chris Wilpert http://goo.gl/TaypQA

C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 14 Overview and Practice Questions

June 16, 2016

This is a series of blog posts about the preparation for the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam for my exam preparation I attend the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy. Each time I finish one unit in the Performance and Goals Academy course on this site Continuous Learning & Development I will share my practice questions.
Why these practice questions are so effective I have explained it in the first blog post of this series: C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 1 Overview and Practice Questions

The main focus in unit 14 was on the configuration of the Competency Section of the Performance Form. The questions now refer to the new SAP Learning Course SAP SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy based on the THR82_EN_Col61 handbook

In total I have come up with 14 practice questions. In this post I will list 8 questions below.

  1. What type of competencies that can be configured in the competency section of the Performance Form?
  2. Where to find the Competency ID?
  3. How to hard code competencies in the XML?
  4. What element to use in order to have the competency to appear first in the list of competencies?
  5. Which attribute enables any permissioned user to remove the competency from the form?
  6. How to populate core competencies in the Performance form in XML?
  7. What are the prerequisites in Admin Center to populate competencies by job code?
  8. Can one specify specific competencies to be only pulled from specific categories with the instance?

All of my 14 practice questions are also here: https://youtu.be/p9osY8phHC8

Further Reading:

Employee Central: I have created a set of 212 free practice questions – see my blog post: https://ppalme.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/the-sap-successfactors-employee-central-certified-application-associate-exam-how-i-passed-it-and-how-i-prepared-for-it/

SAP SuccessFactors Compensation Exam – How I Passed it

SuccessFactors Certification Exam and Delta Exam Preparation – Useful Resources

C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 13 Overview and Practice Questions

June 16, 2016

This is a series of blog posts about the preparation for the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam for my exam preparation I attend the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy. Each time I finish one unit in the Performance and Goals Academy course on this site Continuous Learning & Development I will share my practice questions.
Why these practice questions are so effective I have explained it in the first blog post of this series: C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 1 Overview and Practice Questions

The main focus in unit 13 was on describing and the configuration of the Objective Section of the Performance Form. The questions now refer to the new SAP Learning Course SAP SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy based on the THR82_EN_Col61 handbook

In total I have come up with 18 practice questions. In this post I will list 9 questions below.

  1. How many objective sections can a performance form have?
  2. What are the two ways to populate the goals to a performance form?
  3. When it is not recommended to use auto-sync on forms?
  4. What to configure in XML to add the Add Goals button to the form?
  5. What is a Side-by-side rating?
  6. What is the recommended setting for editing goals in the performance form in XML?
  7. What is the default setting for updating goals from the goal plan to the goals section of the associated performance form?
  8. How to enable auto-sync in XML?
  9. How to enable auto-sync in Manage Templates?

All of my 18 practice questions are also here: https://youtu.be/uHCiVKW3sL0

 

Further Reading:

Employee Central: I have created a set of 212 free practice questions – see my blog post: https://ppalme.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/the-sap-successfactors-employee-central-certified-application-associate-exam-how-i-passed-it-and-how-i-prepared-for-it/

SAP SuccessFactors Compensation Exam – How I Passed it

SuccessFactors Certification Exam and Delta Exam Preparation – Useful Resources

C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 12 Overview and Practice Questions

June 3, 2016

This is a series of blog posts about the preparation for the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam for my exam preparation I attend the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy. Each time I finish one unit in the Performance and Goals Academy course on this site Continuous Learning & Development I will share my practice questions.

Why these practice questions are so effective I have explained it in the first blog post of this series: C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 1 Overview and Practice Questions

The main focus in unit 12 was on the configuration of the Introduction, Employee Information, and Review Section of the Performance Form. The questions now refer to the new SAP Learning Course SAP SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy based on the THR82_EN_Col61 handbook

In total I have come up with 23 practice questions. In this post I will list all 13 questions below.

  1. How often can the introduction section appear in the performance form?
  2. How to configure the Introduction Section in Manage Templates?
  3. How to configure the Introduction Section in XML?
  4. What is the best practice for Target for links to external websites?
  5. What is the best practice for Target for links to the SAP SuccessFactors System?
  6. What fields are selected by the default in the Employee Information Section of the form?
  7. Can you control the order of the elements how they appear in the form in Manage Templates?
  8. How to configure the Employee Information Section in the XML?
  9. What is the purpose of the review section?
  10. Is the Review Information Section available for PMv12?
  11. How to hard-code review dates in Manage Templates?
  12. Can a user edit the dates populated to the form?
  13. How to prevent users from editing dates after the form is launched?

 All of my 13 practice questions are also here: https://youtu.be/4EZ_9cP3Chg

Further Reading:

Employee Central: I have created a set of 212 free practice questions – see my blog post: https://ppalme.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/the-sap-successfactors-employee-central-certified-application-associate-exam-how-i-passed-it-and-how-i-prepared-for-it/

SAP SuccessFactors Compensation Exam – How I Passed it

SuccessFactors Certification Exam and Delta Exam Preparation – Useful Resources

C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 11 Overview and Practice Questions

May 30, 2016

This is a series of blog posts about the preparation for the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam for my exam preparation I attend the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy. Each time I finish one unit in the Performance and Goals Academy course on the this site Continuous Learning & Development I will share my practice questions.

Why these practice questions are so effective I have explained it in the first blog post of this series: C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 1 Overview and Practice Questions

The main focus in unit 11 was on the Performance Forms Sections Configuration. The questions now refer to the new SAP Learning Course SAP SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy based on the THR82_EN_Col61 handbook

In total I have come up with 36 practice questions. In this post I will list all 10 questions below.

  1. What are the three methods of updating Performance Management Templates?
  2. What settings can you configure in Form Template Settings?
  3. Where do you turn on and off email Notifications in the instance?
  4. Where to delete forms in the instance?
  5. What type of organizational changes may affect the forms?
  6. Where can the rating scale for the entire form be chosen?
  7. Where to find the rating scale in the instance?
  8. How to configure item weights in Manage Templates?
  9. How to configure to have all goals in the Performance Management form equally weighted?
  10. What does the Route Signature Step and Completed Forms feature allow?

 All of my 36 practice questions are also here: https://youtu.be/qm1NbHW6KEA

Further Reading:

Employee Central: I have created a set of 212 free practice questions – see my blog post: https://ppalme.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/the-sap-successfactors-employee-central-certified-application-associate-exam-how-i-passed-it-and-how-i-prepared-for-it/

SAP SuccessFactors Compensation Exam – How I Passed it

SuccessFactors Certification Exam and Delta Exam Preparation – Useful Resources

C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 10 Overview and Practice Questions

May 18, 2016

This is a series of blog posts about the preparation for the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam for my exam preparation I attend the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy. Each time I finish one unit in the Performance and Goals Academy course on the SAP Learning Hub https://training.sap.com/shop/learninghub I will share my practice questions.

Why these practice questions are so effective I have explained it in the first blog post of this series: C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 1 Overview and Practice Questions

The main focus in unit 10 was on the Performance Management Form. The questions now refer to the new SAP Learning Course SAP SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy based on the THR82_EN_Col61 handbook

In total I came up with 28 practice questions. In this post I will list all 10 questions below.

  1. What is the difference between forms and template?
  2. All performance management forms validate against which DTD?
  3. Which form combines the functionality of PMv11 form and PMv12 forms?
  4. What components are in the performance form templates?
  5. What are the three main stages forms go through?
  6. What are the two reviewer roles?
  7. Where to create a new rating scale?
  8. What kind of information can you include in the Introduction Section of the Performance Management Form?
  9. What kind of information is in the Employee Information section?
  10. Is the Development section mandatory?

All of my 28 practice questions are also here: https://youtu.be/GRuiGF4FcEo

Further Reading:

Employee Central: I have created a set of 212 free practice questions – see my blog post: https://ppalme.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/the-sap-successfactors-employee-central-certified-application-associate-exam-how-i-passed-it-and-how-i-prepared-for-it/

SAP SuccessFactors Compensation Exam – How I Passed it

SuccessFactors Certification Exam and Delta Exam Preparation – Useful Resources

C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 9 Overview and Practice Questions

May 11, 2016

This is a series of blog posts about the preparation for the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam for my exam preparation I attend the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy. Each time I finish one unit in the Performance and Goals Academy course on the SAP Learning Hub https://training.sap.com/shop/learninghub I will share my practice questions.
Why these practice questions are so effective I have explained it in the first blog post of this series: C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 1 Overview and Practice Questions

The main focus in unit 9 was on Competencies and Competency Libraries. The questions now refer to the new SAP Learning Course SAP SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy  based on the THR82_EN_Col61 handbook

In total I have come up with 22 practice questions. In this post I will list all 10 questions below.

  1. What are competencies?
  2. In which SAP SF Modules play competencies a central role?
  3. What is the difference between competencies and goals?
  4. Do you have to place each competency within a category?
  5. What is the recommendation of how many competency categories to use?
  6. What features does the writing assistant have?
  7. How to create a Job Family?
  8. How to create a Job Role in an existing Job Family?
  9. Can an employee have more than one job code?
  10. How to Add a Job Code to an existing role?

 

All of my 22 practice questions are also here: https://youtu.be/1g37veGZBeE

 

Further Reading:

Employee Central: I have created a set of 212 free practice questions – see my blog post: https://ppalme.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/the-sap-successfactors-employee-central-certified-application-associate-exam-how-i-passed-it-and-how-i-prepared-for-it/

SAP SuccessFactors Compensation Exam – How I Passed it

SuccessFactors Certification Exam and Delta Exam Preparation – Useful Resources

C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 8 Overview and Practice Questions

April 27, 2016

This is a series of blog posts about the preparation for the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam for my exam preparation I attend the SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Academy. Each time I finish one unit in the Performance and Goals Academy course on the SAP Learning Hub https://training.sap.com/shop/learninghub I will share my practice questions.
Why these practice questions are so effective I have explained it in the first blog post of this series: C THR82_1411 SuccessFactors Performance and Goals Certification Exam – Unit 1 Overview and Practice Questions

The main focus in unit 8 was on Goal Execution. The questions now refer to the new SAP Learning Course SAP SuccessFactors Peformance and Goals Academy  based on the THR82_EN_Col61 handbook

In total I have come up with 38 practice questions. In this post I will list all 15 questions below.

  1. Can Goal Execution fields be utilized for more than one goal plan?
  2. Can you view private goals in the execution map fields?
  3. What are the steps to enable Goal Execution in Provisioning?
  4. How to Enable Goal Execution in the Instance?
  5. Where does the information for the Execution map come from?
  6. How to configure Email Notification Templates?
  7. What is a Rollup?
  8. What types of Rollup exists?
  9. To use Goal Execution in a goal plan, what Standard fields must be included in the goal plan template?
  10. How many enum fields must the field for Effort Spent contain?
  11. Which fields are stored in the database with historical value?
  12. Which fields can be configured for mobile?
  13. Can you manipulate permissions in Manage Template for Goal Execution?
  14. What action permission must be configured in XML?
  15. Can you remove fields within Manage Templates?

 

 All of my 38 practice questions are also here: https://youtu.be/i6aMq5YWPB4

 

Further Reading:

Employee Central: I have created a set of 212 free practice questions – see my blog post: https://ppalme.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/the-sap-successfactors-employee-central-certified-application-associate-exam-how-i-passed-it-and-how-i-prepared-for-it/

SAP SuccessFactors Compensation Exam – How I Passed it

SuccessFactors Certification Exam and Delta Exam Preparation – Useful Resources


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